Welcome to the Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) Model Homepage
Current version is released on
What is DEAD?
The Dust Entrainment and Deposition Model (DEAD) is a wind erosion
and mineral dust transport model.
DEAD may be run standalone, as a box model (BXM), or as a mineral dust
module embedded in a large scale atmospheric host model.
DEAD has been embedded in the Chemical Transport Models (CTMs)
Univeristy of Oslo CTM2,
UC Irvine CTM,
and in the General Circulation Models (GCMs)
NCAR CAM3, and
the NASA GEOS4.
describing the physics of DEAD version 1.x is in
J. Geophys. Res., and numerous other articles using or
referring to DEAD are listed below.
In BXM mode, DEAD provides a flexible front-end for specification of
environmental parameters (e.g., wind speed) and microphysical
This mode is useful for offline sensitivity studies, prediction
of erosion in wind tunnels and source regions, and comparison to
In CTM mode, DEAD predicts realistic evolution of dust storms and
transport based on analyzed global meteorology.
This mode is useful for hindcasting and short-term forecasting of
dust events (e.g., during field campaigns) and present day dust
In GCM mode, DEAD provides radiative feedbacks which alter and respond
to the climate of the host GCM.
This mode is useful for analyzing the effect of dust on climate,
and the sensitivity of dust loading to past, present, and future
The reference DEAD source code comprises the subroutines used in both the
MATCH, along with
driver subroutines for offline (box model)
Other implementations of DEAD have either hacked this source code,
or completely re-implemented (parts of) it from scratch.
DEAD is freely available (see below) and is a useful tool for
scientific studies of wind erosion, mineral dust aerosol, and
- 20090806: DEAD version 1.5.0 released
- 20060524: DEAD version 1.4.3 released
- 20050825: Saltation-sandblasting module sltsbl version 1.0 posted on website
- 20050725: DEAD version 1.4.2 released
- 20030904: DEAD Mail List operational (dead_at_uci_dot_edu)
- 20030418: On-line box model uses Weibull PDF
- 20030206: On-line box model produces graphical timeseries downloadable
- 20030201: Wind speed PDFs implemented (defaults to Weibull distribution)
- 20030121: Sandblasting parameterization invoked with make USR_TKN=-DAlG01
- 20020109: Box model runs directly from website
- 20021004: Fix small mass leak of largest particles in dry deposition
- 20020809: Homepage debuts
- 20020719: First public release of DEAD
- 19651223: Pre-release Dead forms
Documentation and User's Guide
The nascent DEAD User's Guide comes in PDF format:
Currently, the guide only contains descriptions of the command line
switches and output fields.
Contributions of additional sections are most welcome.
- PDF Portable Document Format (ghostview, acroread, xpdf)
DEAD On-line Box Model
DEAD compiles into a
that you can
run on-line here
(yes, it runs from the shell command line, too).
This unusual feature raises some eyebrows (or, in the case of the hirstute author, eyebrow).
What is the purpose of the box model?
We believe that the same processes which generate dust in laboratory
wind tunnels also generate most large-scale dust events.
This is a difficult hypothesis to test because of the mismatch of
scales and scarcity of accurate measurements of natural dust storms.
DEAD is testable against station and wind tunnel timeseries precisely so
we can improve the wind tunnel-scale processes which contribute to
We want (you to help us) to test our GCM dust model against any and
all station and wind tunnel dust measurements and to use the resulting
biases to understand erosive processes better and to refine DEAD.
DEAD should nail well-controlled laboratory and field wind tunnel
That way, biases in the global predictions of DEAD can be constrained
to errors in input data or representation of large scale processes
(transport, mixing, deposition).
We have one semi-funded and one submitted proposal to use this
technique to improve understanding and representation (in DEAD) of
dust emissions using in situ measurements from the
Mojave Desert, and
Please contact us if you are interested in evaluating your favorite
dust measurement timeseries (or do it yourself and let us know what
Column Radiation Model (CRM)
is another example of a physical process model that works in a reduced
dimension mode, in this case a single vertical column.
We have modified the CRM radiation code (which may be used in CCM 3.6)
to account for the dust predicted by DEAD, so the two are synergistic.
Contact us for more details.
Zender, C. S., H. Bian, and D. Newman, Mineral Dust Entrainment
And Deposition (DEAD) model: Description and 1990s dust climatology,
J. Geophys. Res., 108(D14), 4416, doi:10.1029/2002JD002775, 2003.
PDF (JGR) (© 2003 by the AGU) (Errata in JGR version: Equation 1b parenthetical expression (1-0.858...) should be squared. Equation 10 final factor (1+u*t/u*) should be squared.) (Reference article for DEAD)
Articles which use DEAD extensively/exclusively
Bian, H., and C. S. Zender, Mineral dust and global
tropospheric chemistry: Relative roles of photolysis and
J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 4672, doi:10.1029/2002JD003143, 2003.
PDF (JGR) (© 2003 by the AGU)
Bian, H., and C. S. Zender, Heterogeneous impact of dust on tropospheric ozone: Sensitivity to season, species, and uptake rates, Submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 2003.
Grini, A., C. S. Zender, and P. Colarco, Saltation sandblasting
behavior during mineral dust aerosol production,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(18), 1868, doi:10.1029/2002GL015248, 2002.
(© 2002 by the AGU)
PDF (JGR) (© 2002 by the AGU)
Grini, A., and C. S. Zender, Roles of saltation, sandblasting, and wind speed variability on mineral dust aerosol size distribution during the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRIDE), J. Geophys. Res., 109(D7), D07202, doi:10.1029/2003JD004233, 2004.
PDF (JGR) (© 2004 by the AGU)
Grini, A., G. Myhre, C. S. Zender, and I. S. A. Isaksen (2005), Model simulations of dust sources and transport in the global troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 110(D2), D02205, doi:10.1029/2004JD005037.
PDF (JGR) (© 2005 by the AGU)
Luo, C., N. M. Mahowald, and J. del Corral,
Sensitivity Study of Meteorological Parameters on Mineral Aerosol
Mobilization, Transport, and Distribution,
J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 4447, doi:10.1029/2003JD003483, 2003.
Mahowald, N. M., C. S. Zender, C. Luo, D. Savoie, O. Torres, and J. del Corral,
Understanding the 30 year Barbados desert dust record,
J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4561, doi:10.1029/2002JD002097, 2002.
PDF (JGR) (© 2002 by the AGU)
Mahowald, N. M., C. Luo, and J. del Corral, and C. S. Zender,
Interannual variability in Atmospheric Mineral Aerosols from a 22-year
Model Simulation and Observational Data,
J. Geophys. Res., 108(D12), 4352, doi:10.1029/2002JD002821, 2003.
PDF (JGR) (© 2003 by the AGU)
Zender, C. S., D. Newman, and O. Torres, Spatial
Heterogeneity in Aeolian Erodibility: Uniform, Topographic,
Geomorphic, and Hydrologic Hypotheses,
J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), 4543, doi:10.1029/2002JD003039, 2003.
PDF (JGR) (© 2003 by the AGU)
Zender, C. S., R. Miller, and I. Tegen, Quantifying
Mineral Dust Mass Budgets: Terminology, Constraints, and Current
Estimates, Eos, 85(48), 509–512, 2004.
PDF (Eos) (© 2004 by the AGU)
Articles which use DEAD, but which are not focused on dust
Clarke, A. D., W. D. Collins, P. J. Rasch, V. N. Kapustin, K. Moore,
S. Howell, and H. E. Fuelberg, Dust and pollution transport on global
scales: Aerosol measurements and model predictions,
J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 32555–32569, 2001.
Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. E. Eaton, B. Khattatov,
J.-F. Lamarque, and C. S. Zender, Forecasting aerosols using a
chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol
retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX, J. Geophys. Res.,
106(D7), 7313–7336, 2001.
(© 2001 by the AGU)
Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. E. Eaton, D. W. Fillmore, J. T. Kiehl,
C. T. Beck, and C. S. Zender, Simulation of Aerosol Distributions and
Radiative Forcing for INDOEX: Regional Climate Impacts,
J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 8028,
PDF (JGR) (© 2002 by the AGU)
Rasch, P. J., W. D. Collins, and B. E. Eaton, Understanding the Indian
Ocean Experiment INDOEX aerosol distributions with an Aerosol
Assimilation, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D7), 7337–7355,
Input Datasets and Selected Results
These data are free and publicly available.
They are stored in the self-describing
We encourage you to use these data in your studies.
No offer of co-authorship is necessary.
Custom datasets are available upon request.
DEAD box model forcing dataset
paws_Ptr_19910101_20031231.nc for 1991–2003 in Paterson, WA.
Produced from PAWS station data with this
- DEAD climatological simulation, 1990–1999 Includes all 3-D fields. (Zender et al., 2003a)
- DEAD climatological monthly simulation, 1990–1999 Includes selected 2-D and 3-D fields. (Zender et al., 2003a)
- Global model boundary condition datasets: Search the dst_*.nc files in
for your model resolution. Files contain spatially- and, for some
fields, temporally-varying (monthly-mean) boundary condition data on
a global grid. This includes vegetation, soil texture, and some
mineralogy. It does not include initial conditions such as winds.
Coarse resolution (say, 4×5 degrees or coarser) global models
may do better with the “no coast” datasets in
These datasets do not taper the erodibility close to the coasts.
When applied at coarse resolution, tapering can eliminate whole
source regions in narrow regions such as Patagonia.
- DEAD 1.5.0, Fix q_dst() zeroing, netCDF4 support, WRF grid, subversion
- DEAD 1.4.3, Convert pmgrid to Fortran90, Intel Compiler 9.X fixes
- DEAD 1.4.2, Reads time-varying forcing data from external files
- DEAD 1.3.4, Add vwc_sfc to command-line input
- DEAD 1.3.3, More sandblasting diagnostics
- DEAD 1.3.2, Sandblasting option included with -DAlG01
- DEAD 1.3.1, Synchronization for sandblasting modifications
- DEAD 1.3.0, Reads WSU-format external forcing data from fl_ext_dat.nc
- DEAD 1.2.7, Rearranged dependencies, builds cleanly & runs with Intel ifc
- DEAD 1.2.6, Drag coefficient more accurate for Re > 0.1
- DEAD 1.2.5, Fix dry deposition leak, ppt change in large particle sedimentation
- DEAD 1.2.4, Lahey lf95 fixes for OPTS=X
- DEAD 1.2.3, Lahey lf95 fixes for PRC=D
- DEAD 1.2.2, Lahey lf95 compatibility for PRC=S
- DEAD 1.2.1, dst_mss_bdg.nc timestepping fix
- DEAD 1.2.0, Added documentation for public version
- DEAD 1.1.15, Version used in
Zender et al. (2003a) and
Zender et al. (2003b).
- DEAD's simulation of 1998 in MPEG format.
This movie shows the predicted daily average optical depth for all of 1998.
Note the intense Asian dust storms that propogate across the Pacific in April.
The distribution includes the complete source code necessary to
build and to run (in box model mode) DEAD on your own machine.
Additional software is required to build and run DEAD:
- Source code and documentation in tarball format: dead.tar.gz ( compressed tar file)
Optional software: By default, DEAD uses the Alfaro and Gomes (2001)
saltation-sanblasting implemented as look-up tables (to increase speed).
The lookup tables are computed off-line by a stand-alone
saltation-sandblasting program/module (sltsbl.F90), and then
munged into a DEAD subroutine/module (dstsltsbl.F90).
If you want to explore, re-formulate, or improve the
saltation-sandblasting in DEAD, we recommend that you start from the
We are very interested in improving the modularity, readability,
testability, and commented-ness of sltsbl.F90.
Please send us your improvements!
We're also very interested in implementing the
et al. (2005) algorithms in DEAD so if anyone has this code
please make it available.
- 1. Most any Fortran9X compiler, e.g., gfortran, ifort, g95, pgf95, xlf95.
- 2. GNU Make
- 3. Fortran90 interface (i.e., libraries, module files) to
version 3.6.x or 4.x.
I will arrange Subversion access to DEAD (and sltsbl) for anyone who asks.
Files containing useful information about the current DEAD distribution:
The Makefile that comes with the DEAD box model
requires a utility called makdep to generate
dependencies for the Fortran programs.
Download the source code, makdep.c,
compile it with cc -o makdep makdep.c, and place the
resulting executable in your path before you try to build DEAD.
- README briefly describes DEAD, links to further
documentation, and contact information for further questions.
- INSTALL contains the installation
instructions for the DEAD box model.
- FAQ contains answers to Frequently
Asked Questions about DEAD. Please read this file before sending
questions to the DEAD maintainers.
- ChangeLog Up-to-date history of
- TODO An unordered list describing the features and
fixes we currently have in mind for DEAD.
Known Problems with DEAD:
Mail List for Discussion of Dust Entrainment and Deposition Modeling
Charlie “my surname is zender” Zender
Address questions and comments about DEAD to